Leslie Rutkowski is Professor of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methodology at Indiana University. Leslie’s research is in the area of international large-scale assessment. Her interests include latent variable models and examining methods for comparing heterogeneous populations in international surveys. In addition to a recently completed Norwegian Research Council grant on developing international measurement methods, Leslie published the edited volume Handbook of International Large-Scale Assessment (Rutkowski, von Davier, and Rutkowski, 2014) with Chapman & Hall. Leslie currently serves as associate editor for the Springer journal Large-scale Assessments in Education and as co-executive editor for the Springer book series, IEA Research for Education. She is also the chair of the PISA Technical Advisory Group and the NAEP Questionnaire Standing Committee.